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Bottom - Floor or underlying surface of an underground excavation. Boss - Any member of the managerial ranks who is directly in charge of miners e. Box-type magazine - A small, portable magazine used to store limited quantities of explosives or detonators for short periods of time at locations in the mine which are convenient to the blasting sites at which they will be used. Brattice or brattice cloth - Fire-resistant fabric or plastic partition used in a mine passage to confine the air and force it into the working place.

Also termed "line brattice," "line canvas," or "line curtain. Break line - The line that roughly follows the rear edges of coal pillars that are being mined. The line along which the roof of a coal mine is expected to break. Breakthrough - A passage for ventilation that is cut through the pillars between rooms. Bridge carrier - A rubber-tire-mounted mobile conveyor, about 10 meters long, used as an intermediate unit to create a system of articulated conveyors between a mining machine and a room or entry conveyor.

How Ethereum Mining Works

Bridge conveyor - A short conveyor hung from the boom of mining or lading machine or haulage system with the other end attached to a receiving bin that dollies along a frame supported by the room or entry conveyor, tailpiece. Thus, as the machine boom moves, the bridge conveyor keeps it in constant connection with the tailpiece. Brow - A low place in the roof of a mine, giving insufficient headroom. Brushing - Digging up the bottom or taking down the top to give more headroom in roadways. Btu — British thermal unit.

A measure of the energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. Bug dust - The fine particles of coal or other material resulting form the boring or cutting of the coal face by drill or machine. Bump or burst - A violent dislocation of the mine workings which is attributed to severe stresses in the rock surrounding the workings.

Definition of 'Data Mining'

Butt cleat - A short, poorly defined vertical cleavage plane in a coal seam, usually at right angles to the long face cleat. Butt entry - A coal mining term that has different meanings in different locations. It can be synonymous with panel entry, submain entry, or in its older sense it refers to an entry that is "butt" onto the coal cleavage that is, at right angles to the face.

Cage - In a mine shaft, the device, similar to an elevator car, that is used for hoisting personnel and materials. Calorific value - The quantity of heat that can be liberated from one pound of coal or oil measured in BTU's. Cannel coal - A massive, non-caking block coal with a fine, even grain and a conchoidal fracture which has a high percentage of hydrogen, burns with a long, yellow flame, and is extremely easy to ignite. Canopy - A protective covering of a cab on a mining machine. Cap - A miner's safety helmet. Also, a highly sensitive, encapsulated explosive that is used to detonate larger but less sensitive explosives.

Cap block - A flat piece of wood inserted between the top of the prop and the roof to provide bearing support. Car - A railway wagon, especially any of the wagons adapted to carrying coal, ore, and waste underground. Car-dump - The mechanism for unloading a loaded car. Carbide bit - More correctly, cemented tungsten carbide. A cutting or drilling bit for rock or coal, made by fusing an insert of molded tungsten carbide to the cutting edge of a steel bit shank.

Cast - A directed throw; in strip-mining, the overburden is cast from the coal to the previously mined area. Certified - Describes a person who has passed an examination to do a required job. Chain conveyor - A conveyor on which the material is moved along solid pans troughs by the action of scraper crossbars attached to powered chains.

Chain pillar - The pillar of coal left to protect the gangway or entry and the parallel airways. Check curtain - Sheet of brattice cloth hung across an airway to control the passage of the air current. Chock - Large hydraulic jacks used to support roof in longwall and shortwall mining systems. Clay vein - A body of clay-like material that fills a void in a coal bed.

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Cleat - The vertical cleavage of coal seams. The main set of joints along which coal breaks when mined. Clean Air Act Amendments of — A comprehensive set of amendments to the federal law governing the nation's air quality. The Clean Air Act was originally passed in to address significant air pollution problems in our cities. The amendments broadened and strengthened the original law to address specific problems such as acid deposition, urban smog, hazardous air pollutants and stratospheric ozone depletion.

Clean Coal Technologies — A number of innovative, new technologies designed to use coal in a more efficient and cost-effective manner while enhancing environmental protection. Several promising technologies include: fluidized-bed combustion, integrated gasification combined cycle, limestone injection multi-stage burner, enhanced flue gas desulfurization or "scrubbing" , coal liquefaction and coal gasification. Coal - A solid, brittle, more or less distinctly stratified combustible carbonaceous rock, formed by partial to complete decomposition of vegetation; varies in color from dark brown to black; not fusible without decomposition and very insoluble.

Coal dust - Particles of coal that can pass a No. Coal Gasification — The conversion of coal into a gaseous fuel. Coal mine - An area of land and all structures, facilities, machinery, tools, equipment, shafts, slopes, tunnels, excavations, and other property, real or personal, placed upon, under, or above the surface of such land by any person, used in extracting coal from its natural deposits in the earth by any means or method, and the work of preparing the coal so extracted, including coal preparation facilities.

British term is "colliery". Coal reserves - Measured tonnages of coal that have been calculated to occur in a coal seam within a particular property. Coal washing — The process of separating undesirable materials from coal based on differences in densities.


Pyritic sulfur, or sulfur combined with iron, is heavier and sinks in water; coal is lighter and floats. Coke — A hard, dry carbon substance produced by heating coal to a very high temperature in the absence of air. Collar - The term applied to the timbering or concrete around the mouth or top of a shaft. The beginning point of a shaft or drill hole at the surface. Column flotation — A precombustion coal cleaning technology in which coal particles attach to air bubbles rising in a vertical column.

The coal is then removed at the top of the column. Comminution - The breaking, crushing, or grinding of coal, ore, or rock. Competent rock - Rock which, because of its physical and geological characteristics, is capable of sustaining openings without any structural support except pillars and walls left during mining stalls, light props, and roof bolts are not considered structural support. Contact - The place or surface where two different kinds of rocks meet.

Copper Mining and Processing: Life Cycle of a Mine

Applies to sedimentary rocks, as the contact between a limestone and a sandstone, for example, and to metamorphic rocks; and it is especially applicable between igneous intrusions and their walls. Continuous miner - A machine that constantly extracts coal while it loads it.

This is to be distinguished from a conventional, or cyclic, unit which must stop the extraction process in order for loading to commence. Contour - An imaginary line that connects all points on a surface having the same elevation. Conventional mining — The first fully-mechanized underground mining method involving the insertion of explosives in a coal seam, the blasting of the seam, and the removal of the coal onto a conveyor or shuttle car by a loading machine.

Conveyor - An apparatus for moving material from one point to another in a continuous fashion.

Mining vehicles - a ride through time

This is accomplished with an endless that is, looped procession of hooks, buckets, wide rubber belt, etc. Core sample — A cylinder sample generally " in diameter drilled out of an area to determine the geologic and chemical analysis of the overburden and coal. Creep - The forcing of pillars into soft bottom by the weight of a strong roof. In surface mining, a very slow movement of slopes downhill.